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CSEE 380

CSEE 380

IEEE Introduction

Reference lists or bibliographies go at the end of papers. The citations listed in the reference list correspond to the references cited in the text of the paper. With all citation formats there are variations and exceptions... What is most important is to know what your instructor wants in a citation and be consistent with all your citations.

If at all possible, put the DOI (Digital Object Identifier)  at the end of yur citation rather than a URL.  This will make it much easier for your instructor to find the resource you have used as a reference.

A citation creation website might make your life a little easier but remember to confirm that the citation is correct using the examples below before including the Reference in your finished paper.  There will ALWAYS be errors in the citations they create.  
Of the websites that create citations, this is the one I recommend.  Use a DOI if at all possible.
Watch this video before you visitit.
Using to Create Citations

IEEE In-Text Citation

In-text citations

These are the ways you tell your readers what resources you are quoting or summarizing or paraphrasing.  All of them will need a corresponding Reference at the end of your paper.

Each reference number should be enclosed in square brackets on the same line as the text, before any punctuation, with a space before the bracket.
“Direct quote here [1].”

“Everything is Somebody’s Favorite [14].”

As Miller says in [2], “Some people call me Maurice,  ‘Cause I speak of the Pompatus of love.”

There is no need to write “in reference [2].” Just write “in [2].”

If you need to include several of your references in the same sentence you can list them separated by a comma.

Example:  Several recent studies [3, 4, 15, 22] have suggested “ . . .”

IEEE Reference Citation

Journal Articles
If a journal has an official abbreviation use it rather than the full title. all IEEE journals have official abbrviations.
Basic format:
Z. Last-Name, “Name of paper,” Abbrev. Title of Periodical, vol. x, no. x, pp. xxx-xxx, Abbrev. Month, year, doi: xxx.

S. Bratarchuk, “Python Programming Language as a Tool for Integrated Learning of Robotics in Secondary School:,” in International Journal of Smart Education and Urban Society, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 76–86, Jan. 2018, doi: 10.4018/IJSEUS.2018010107.

M. Morawiec and A. Lewicki, “Application of Sliding Switching Functions in Backstepping Based Speed Observer of Induction Machine,” in IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 5843–5853, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.1109/TIE.2019.2914645.

S. Shankaregowda, et al., "A Flexible and Transparent Graphene-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator," in IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 435-441, May 2016, doi: 10.1109/TNANO.2016.2540958

If the book has a DOI then include it at the end of the citation.  It is not required as many books do not have a DOI.
Basic format:

Z.  Last-Name, Title of Book, City of Publisher: Publisher, Year,  doi: xyz


W. Beverly, Dodgers. New York: Crown Publishers, 2016.

D. Beazley and B. Jones, Python Cookbook 3rd ed.  Boston: O’Reilly Media, 2013.

G. Fink, et al.,  Security and Privacy in Cyber-Physical Systems. Hoboken: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2017.

Conference Paper (Conference Article)
Basic Format:
Z. Last-Name, “Title of paper,” in Abbreviated Name of Conf., (location of conference is optional), (Month and day(s) if provided) year, pp. xxx-xxx, doi:

D. Vasilev, “Python programming training with the robot Finch,” in 2020 XXIX International Scientific Conference Electronics (ET), Sozopol, Bulgaria, Sep. 2020, pp. 1–4, doi: 10.1109/ET50336.2020.9238231

Online Video:
Basic Format:
Format: Video Owner/Creator, Location (if available). Title of Video: In Initial Caps. (Release date). Accessed: Month Day, Year. [Online Video]. Available:

G. Vaccaro, O’Reilly Online Learning Platform, Microsoft Excel - Advanced Formulas and Functions. (2013)  Accessed Mar 1, 2021.

Further Reading:
IEEE Reference Guide

IEEE Editorial Style Manual for Authors

How to Cite References: IEEE Documentation Style