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Geology 411: Deep Time Earth Systems

This guide provides sources for research for Dr. Benison's geology class.

Find an Overview of Your Topic

These resources will help you find vetted sources for an overview of an unfamiliar topic.
Credo Reference Includes subject specialty encyclopedias, dictionaries, and handbooks often with illustrations.  
AccessScience A comprehensive resource with encyclopedia-like entries for all areas of the sciences. 


During the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation, the continents were in very different positions from today. This was shown by the discovery of glacial remains over Africa up to the Equator, southern India, the southern portion of Australia, and the eastern regions of south America. All were then near the South Pole, and part of Pangea.

Image from CredoReference: "The Ice Ages". 2009. In Curriculum Connections: The Earth, edited by Rebecca Hunter. London: Brown Bear Books Ltd.

Sources in Science Communication